'''Samuel Smiles''' (23 December 1812 – 16 April 1904), was a Scottish people|Scottish
author and government reformer who campaigned on a Chartism|Chartist
platform. But he concluded that more progress would come from new attitudes than from new laws. His masterpiece, ''Self-Help (book)|Self-Help
'' (1859), promoted thrift and claimed that poverty was caused largely by irresponsible habits, while also attacking materialism and laissez-faire government. It has been called "the bible of mid-Victorian liberalism", and it raised Smiles to celebrity status almost overnight.